Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy Part 1: Fundamentals (Presentation File)
This supplementary material is a part of the presentation handout, pages 133–154, for the 51st Electrochemistry Workshop entitled “Fundamentals and New Approaches to Electrochemistry” organized by Kansai Branch of the Electrochemical Society of Japan on November 14–18, 2022 to be distributed at the workshop. / Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) enables the examination of the electrochemical nature of electrodes and electrochemical cells by applying an alternating voltage (or current) and measuring the resulting current (or voltage). The resistance and capacitance components of the electrode can be evaluated by applying an AC voltage and changing the frequency. In particular, analysis using the equivalent circuit can determine important parameters related to the electrochemical reaction of the electrode, such as the charge transfer resistance, electric double-layer capacitance, and Warburg impedance. Moreover, the internal resistance of the cell can be divided into resistances caused by the positive electrode, negative electrode, and electrolyte. Because of these advantages, EIS is a powerful technique used for basic research, such as in identifying the rate-determining step of an electrochemical reaction, and also for applied research, such as characterizing electrochemical devices (e.g., batteries and capacitors). In this paper, the concept of impedance, which represents the relationship between the AC voltage and current, is first explained; then, the AC characteristics of various circuit elements used in equivalent circuits, which are essential for understanding EIS, are described. Finally, treatments of more complex circuits based on transmission-line models (TLMs), which are used to represent equivalent circuits of porous electrodes, are presented. Analyses based on TLMs are the foundation for understanding electrodes for practical applications because porous electrodes are usually used in electrochemical devices.