Supporting Information for "Improvement in the Power Output of a Reverse Electrodialysis System by the Addition of Poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate)"
Salinity gradient energy generated by the contact between seawater and river water is one of the promising renewable energies. In the reverse electrodialysis (RED), salinity gradient energy is directly translated into the electricity. The representative problem is a large electrical resistance of river water or dilute solutions. The dilute solutions are poor electrically conductive. This results in a huge energy loss when an electrical current passes through it.
In this study, sodium chloride (NaCl) or poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) (NaPSS) was added to the dilute solutions to increase the conductivities and enhance the power outputs of the RED cells. When NaCl was added, the power output reached 11.4 ± 0.6 µW. On the other hand, when NaPSS was added, the power output increased up to 19.6 ± 0.6 µW.